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How can I set the timeout for the connect() system call?

  From Richard Stevens (rstevens@noao.edu):

  Normally you cannot change this.  Solaris does let you do this, on a
  per-kernel basis with the ndd tcp_ip_abort_cinterval parameter.

  The easiest way to shorten the connect time is with an alarm() around
  the call to connect().  A harder way is to use select(), after setting
  the socket nonblocking.  Also notice that you can only shorten the
  connect time, there's normally no way to lengthen it.

  From Andrew Gierth (andrew@erlenstar.demon.co.uk):

  First, create the socket and put it into non-blocking mode, then call
  connect(). There are three possibilities:

  o  connect succeeds: the connection has been successfully made (this
     usually only happens when connecting to the same machine)

  o  connect fails: obvious

  o  connect returns -1/EINPROGRESS. The connection attempt has begun,
     but not yet completed.

  If the connection succeeds:

  o  the socket will select() as writable (and will also select as
     readable if data arrives)

  If the connection fails:

  o  the socket will select as readable *and* writable, but either a
     read or write will return the error code from the connection
     attempt. Also, you can use getsockopt(SO_ERROR) to get the error
     status - but be careful; some systems return the error code in the
     result parameter of getsockopt, but others (incorrectly) cause the
     getsockopt call *itself* to fail with the stored value as the

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